The next day, the two Houses entered into a conference but failed to resolve the matter. William in private conversation with Halifax, Danby, Shrewsbury, Lord Winchester and Lord Mordaunt made it clear that they could either accept him as king or deal with the Whigs without his military presence, for then he would leave for the Republic. But he let it be known that he was happy for Mary to be nominal monarch and preference in the succession given to Anne's children over his by a subsequent marriage. Anne declared that she would temporarily waive her right to the crown should Mary die before William, and Mary refused to be made queen without William as king.
The Lords on 6 February now accepted the words "abdication" and "vacancy" and Lord Winchester's motion to appoint William and Mary monarchs. The proposal to draw up a statement of rights and liberties and James's invasion of them was first made on 29 January in the Commons, with members arguing that the House "can not answer it to the nation or Prince of Orange till we declare what are the rights invaded" and that William "cannot take it ill if we make conditions to secure ourselves for the future" to "do justice to those who sent us hither". However, on 4 February the Commons decided to instruct the committee to differentiate between "such of the general heads, as are introductory of new laws, from those that are declaratory of ancient rights".
On 7 February the Commons approved this revised Declaration of Right, and on 8 February instructed the committee to put into a single text the Declaration with the heads which were "introductory of new laws" removed , the resolution of 28 January and the Lords' proposal for a revised oath of allegiance.
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It passed the Commons without division. It listed twelve of James's policies by which James designed to "endeavour to subvert and extirpate the protestant religion, and the laws and liberties of this kingdom". The Bill of Rights also vindicated and asserted the nation's "ancient rights and liberties" by declaring:. On 13 February the clerk of the House of Lords read the Declaration of Right, and Halifax, in the name of all the estates of the realm, asked William and Mary to accept the throne.
William replied for his wife and himself: "We thankfully accept what you have offered us". They then went in procession to the great gate at Whitehall. The Coronation Oath Act had provided a new coronation oath, whereby the monarchs were to "solemnly promise and swear to govern the people of this kingdom of England, and the dominions thereunto belonging, according to the statutes in parliament agreed on, and the laws and customs of the same".
They were also to maintain the laws of God, the true profession of the Gospel, and the Protestant Reformed faith established by law.
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While Scotland played no part in the landing and there was little enthusiasm for William and Mary, by November only a tiny minority actively supported James. News of James's flight led to celebrations and anti-Catholic riots in Edinburgh and Glasgow. Most members of the Scottish Privy Council went to London; on 7 January , they asked William to take over government.
Elections were held in March for a Scottish Convention , which was also a contest between Presbyterians and Episcopalians for control of the kirk. While only 50 of the delegates were classed as Episcopalian, they were hopeful of victory since William supported the retention of bishops. However, on 16 March a Letter from James was read out to the convention, demanding obedience and threatening punishment for non-compliance.
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Public anger at its tone meant some Episcopalians stopped attending the convention, claiming to fear for their safety and others changed sides. Many later returned to the kirk but Non-Juring Episcopalianism was the key determinant of Jacobite support in both and The English Parliament held James 'abandoned' his throne; the Convention argued he 'forfeited' it by his actions, as listed in the Articles of Grievances. Tyrconnell had created a largely Catholic army and administration which was reinforced in March when James landed in Ireland with French military support; it took two years of fighting before the new regime controlled Ireland.
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James had cultivated support on the fringes of his Three Kingdoms — in Catholic Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland. Supporters of James, known as Jacobites , were prepared to resist what they saw as an illegal coup by force of arms. The first Jacobite rebellion , an uprising in support of James in Scotland, took place in In Ireland, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell led local Catholics, who had been discriminated against by previous English monarchs, in the conquest of all the fortified places in the kingdom except Derry , and so held the Kingdom for James.
The war raged from to James fled Ireland following his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in , but Jacobite resistance was not ended until after the battle of Aughrim in , when over half of their army was killed or taken prisoner. England stayed relatively calm throughout, although some English Jacobites fought on James's side in Ireland. Despite the Jacobite victory at the Battle of Killiecrankie , the uprising in the Scottish Highlands was quelled due to the death of its leader, Dundee, and Williamite victories at Dunkeld and Cromdale , as well as the Glencoe massacre in early Many, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, continued to see the Stuarts as the legitimate monarchs of the Three Kingdoms, and there were further Jacobite rebellions in Scotland during the years , and Though he had carefully avoided making it public, William's main motive in organising the expedition had been the opportunity to bring England into an alliance against France.
It stipulated that the combined Anglo-Dutch fleet would always be commanded by an Englishman, even when of lower rank; also it specified that the two parties would contribute in the ratio of five English vessels against three Dutch vessels, meaning in practice that the Dutch navy in the future would be smaller than the English. On 18 May the new Parliament allowed William to declare war on France.
Having England as an ally meant that the military situation of the Republic was strongly improved, but this very fact induced William to be uncompromising in his position towards France. This policy led to a large number of very expensive campaigns which were largely paid for with Dutch funds. In the Republic was financially exhausted; it withdrew from international politics and was forced to let its fleet deteriorate, making what was by then the Kingdom of Great Britain the dominant maritime power of the world. The Dutch economy, already burdened by the high national debt and concomitant high taxation, suffered from the other European states' protectionist policies, which its weakened fleet was no longer able to resist.
To make matters worse, the main Dutch trading and banking houses moved much of their activity from Amsterdam to London after Between and , world trade dominance shifted from the Republic to Britain. After being revisited by historians in — the third centennial of the event — several researchers have argued that the "revolution" was actually a successful Dutch invasion of Britain. It is difficult to classify the entire proceedings of — but it can be seen that the events occurred in three phases: conspiracy, invasion by Dutch forces, and "Glorious Revolution".
It has been argued that the invasion aspect had been downplayed as a result of a combination of British pride and successful Dutch propaganda, trying to depict the course of events as a largely internal English affair. As the invitation was initiated by figures who had little influence themselves, the legacy of the Glorious Revolution has been described as a successful propaganda act by William to cover up and justify his successful invasion.
The overthrow of James was hailed at the time and ever since as a "revolution", and the name of "Glorious Revolution" was popularized by Protestant preachers two decades later. The Revolution was made to preserve our ancient indisputable laws and liberties, and that ancient constitution of government which is our only security for law and liberty. Many historians have endorsed Burke's view, including Macaulay and more recently John Morrill, who captured the consensus of contemporary historiography well when he declared that "the Sensible Revolution of —89 was a conservative Revolution".
On the other hand, Steven Pincus argues that it was momentous especially when looking at the alternative that James was trying to enact — a powerful centralised autocratic state, using French-style "state-building". Pincus says it was not a placid turn of events.
This occurred not because William III was an outsider who inflicted foreign notions on England but because foreign affairs and political economy were at the core of the English revolutionaries' agenda. The revolution of —89 cannot be fathomed in isolation. It would have been inconceivable without the changes resulting from the events of the s and s. Indeed, the ideas accompanying the Glorious Revolution were rooted in the mid-century upheavals.
James II tried building a powerful militarised state on the mercantilist assumption that the world's wealth was necessarily finite and empires were created by taking land from other states. After came an alternative understanding of economics, which saw Britain as a commercial rather than an agrarian society.
It led to the foundation of the Bank of England , the creation of Europe's first widely circulating credit currency, and the commencement of the " Age of Projectors ". The Glorious Revolution of is considered by some as being one of the most important events in the long evolution of the respective powers of Parliament and the Crown in England.
With the passage of the Bill of Rights , it stamped out once and for all any possibility of a Catholic monarchy, and ended moves towards absolute monarchy in the British kingdoms by circumscribing the monarch's powers. These powers were greatly restricted; he or she could no longer suspend laws, levy taxes, make royal appointments, or maintain a standing army during peacetime without Parliament's permission — to this day the Army is known as the "British Army" not the "Royal Army" as it is, in some sense, Parliament's Army and not that of the King.
This is, however, a complex issue, as the Crown remains the source of all executive authority in the British army, with legal implications for unlawful orders etc. Since then, Parliament's power has steadily increased while the Crown's has steadily declined. Unlike in the English civil war of the mid-seventeenth century, the "Glorious Revolution" did not involve the masses of ordinary people in England the majority of the bloodshed occurred in Ireland.
Consequently, as a Calvinist and Presbyterian he was now in the unenviable position of being the head of the Church of England, while technically being a Nonconformist. This was, however, not his main motive for promoting religious toleration. Catholic emancipation would be delayed for years. The Williamite War in Ireland can be seen as the source of later ethno-religious conflict, including The Troubles of recent times.
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The Williamite victory in Ireland is still commemorated by the Orange Order for preserving British and Protestant supremacy in the country. In North America, the Glorious Revolution precipitated the Boston revolt in which a well-organised "mob" of provincial militia and citizens successfully deposed the hated governor Edmund Andros. A third event, Maryland's Protestant Rebellion was directed against the proprietary government, seen as Catholic-dominated. Lord Macaulay 's account of the Revolution in The History of England from the Accession of James the Second exemplifies its semi-mystical significance to later generations.
I once heard the Duke of Wellington asked whether he thought Napoleon or Marlborough the greater general. But I can conceive nothing greater than Marlborough at the head of an English army".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a history of the vegetarian movement, see The Bloodless Revolution book. This article is about the English revolution of For the revolution of in Spain, see Glorious Revolution Spain. For other uses, see Glorious Revolution disambiguation. Part of a series on the. Social history of England History of education in England History of the economy of England History of the politics of England English overseas possessions History of the English language.
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